Panic Disorder

Term Paper:  Each student should select one DSM diagnosis mentioned in the text and discuss its etiology, characteristics, assessment and treatment. The student must select a specific disorder rather than an area or category. For example, the student should avoid writing on the general topic of schizophrenia and select a type, i.e. catatonic, paranoid etc. Same thing holds true for ADHD. Another example is the student should not write on a general area like anxiety disorders, but select a specific anxiety or OCD related DSM diagnosis like obsessive compulsive disorder. The student should also provide a description of their own idea or theoretical perspective (behavioral, psychoanalytic, cognitive, biological, humanistic etc. or a combination) on the diagnosis and maladaptive behavior. The paper should be a minimum of 8 double-spaced typewritten pages in length. The paper should be in APA style and organized according to the following outline which would include all of the subheadings noted in this outline:

Abstract: Provide a single-spaced indented overview of the paper.

Introduction: Provide a brief introductory paragraph to the paper including the purpose and scope of the paper as well as reasons why you have chosen this topic.

Etiology: Discuss the causative and contributing factors for the development of the disorder. This should identify specific factors, genetic and/or environmental.

Characteristics: A description of the disorder would be provided in this area. One should avoid discussing characteristics in general for a disorder when there are types of the disorder like Bipolar I or Bipolar II. One should address the specific (e.g. Schizophrenia, paranoid type or Schizophrenia, catatonic type).

Assessment: Describe how the disorder is assessed taking into consideration basic components of the interview(problem, mental status, vegetative etc.) historical data, medical evaluation and suggested medical tests(lab, scans etc.), psychological tests, etc.  This does not mean to just briefly describe the interview or the need to collect, historical data, conduct a medical evaluation or do psychological tests. This means for each assessment component whether it be the interview or the MMPI-2, the student should discuss how these assessment procedures determine the evidence for the disorder. In other words, when collecting historical data, what does one look for in the history of someone who has antisocial personality disorder or a person who has body dysmorphic disorder? What specific historical issues are evident in the family? What findings does a selected psychological test show or what scale that aids in the diagnosis of a particular disorder? Which scale of the MMPI-2 might reflect antisocial characteristics? You have to do the research to answer certain areas.

Treatment and Management: Describe various treatments for the disorder and what has been the most effective treatment approach. Describe the most effective treatment approach and provide reasons for its effectiveness. Be sure to also to provide information on any common difficulties in treating and managing the problem. One way to view what is needed in this area is to talk specifically about what steps are needed with what treatment protocol. That means the student has to specifically discuss the steps in a therapy. For example, a student should not just say cognitive behavioral therapy for a disorder and briefly explain cognitive restructuring. They should talk about the steps in helping the client who has a disorder with possible research examples. That means, for example, if they had panic disorder, what specifically in cognitive behavioral therapy is done and how is it done? Moreover, if drug treatment is used, it needs to be described in detail. For instance, if it is a psychosis, then the student should talk about the particular drug used, its side effects, its administration, how long it takes to take effect and its effectiveness. In the case of the need for hospitalization, the student should address how this occurs, what commonly happens in treatment in the hospital and what has been the outcome. Management should be thoroughly described including difficulties with these types of clients and how to effectively intervene.

Summary:  Summarize the paper in a one half page paragraph or more.

References:  Follow APA, 7th edition, style for each reference citation.

Note: Students should follow APA style for referencing including alphabetizing all entries, italicing book titles and journal names as well as non-capitalizing where appropriate.

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