Bounded Rationality, Retaliation, and the Spread of Urban Violence

For the first essay, your goal is to convince me of what you have learned in this course (i.e. that you have done the readings and understood and absorbed the material).

You must base your essay on ONE of the assigned readings throughout the semester and analyze it. You may analyze it however you want, but you must unpack and dissect the information and provide your own criticisms, thoughts, application, and synthesis and back them up with facts. You can reference current events, the news, or actual incidents or crimes and apply your analysis of the reading that way. For example, you can critique the Mainstream Approach using a particular incident, or you can apply a Heterodox analysis to a certain crime, or you can evaluate a Behavioral approach with another event.

Be specific and reference the important concepts in the reading your choose. This should NOT JUST BE A SIMPLE SUMMARY OF THE READING – you should be grappling with the content of the reading to understand its real practical meaning.

– must be at least 4 pages double-spaced (2 pages single-spaced) in length (with title and subheadings if necessary)
– must exhibit polish and proper grammar/spelling/syntax
– must be in formal writing – i.e. no slang, contractions, first or second person (“I” or “you”) or other faux pas
– follow proper and consistent reference and citation rules


Violations of academic integrity, including plagiarism or unlawful copying, will result in a failing grade and be dealt with according to CUNY policy. These essays will be shared with your classmates to foster engagement with different viewpoints and perspectives.

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